Whether we are mentally active, resting or asleep, the brain always has some level of electrical activity. The study monitored the frequency and location of electrical brain waves through the use of EEG
(electroencephalography). EEG electrodes were placed in standard locations of the scalp using a custommade hat.
In the late 1960's and 1970's it was learned that it was possible to recondition and retrain brainwave patterns. Some of this work began with training to increase alpha brainwave activity to increase relaxation, while other work originating at UCLA focused on uncontrolled epilepsy. This brainwave training is called EEG biofeedback or neurofeedback. Brainwaves occur at various frequencies. The classic names of these EEG bands are alpha, beta, theta and delta.
- Delta – sleep state (0.5 to 4Hz)(0.5 to 4 cycles per second)
- Theta – between sleep and awake(4 to 8 Hz)(4 to 8 cycles per second)
- Alpha – relaxed state (8 to 12Hz) (8 to 12 cycles per second)
- Beta1 – focused concentration( 13 to 30Hz) (1330 cycles per second)
- Beta2 – alert state
- Beta3 – very alert, vigilant
- Beta4 – Hyper vigilant
Theta : Relaxed: Indicates deep relaxation and occur more frequently in highly experienced meditation practitioners.
Alpha : Calm: Allows the mind to relax and get ready for different mental tasks. It is also a state important for contemplation, planning, inspiration and learning facts fast.
Beta1: Focused: Allows paying attention to a specific task, while offsetting distractions.
Beta2: Alert: Allows fast response when the need to react quickly is required.
Best For Concentration
The findings also showed that individuals with attentional deficits exhibit excessive amounts of slow brain wave activity, especially Theta waves. Joel Lubar, a pioneer in this field, demonstrated that treatment modalities focusing on enhancing the Beta1/Theta ratio, have been very effective in treating children with attention deficits and learning disabilities, which usually resulted in improved school performance and better behavior control.
During Neurofeedback sessions, the person wishing to enhance concentration uses feedback coming through an EEG machine to enhance Beta1 and decrease Theta. After a certain amount of training, typically between 40 and 60 sessions, the individual is able to produce more Beta1 at will. Lubar also proved that all children experiencing any form of learning disabilities demonstrated low amounts of Beta1 waves and that many of the symptoms diminished after a process of brain wave training.
Because the most effective brainwaves are alpha and beta according to the association level with the mental activities, the data acquisition device technologies are especially developed for extracting and catching them. Neurofeedback training is brainwave biofeedback. During typical training, a couple of electrodes are placed on the scalp and one or two are usually put on the earlobes. Then, hightech electronic equipment provides real-time, instantaneous audio and visual feedback about your brainwave activity through these alpha and beta waves. So along the various companies, there are some developed hardware as this electronic devices, which is connected to the brain through a part of head as indicated before(brain skin or earlobes) to extract the brainwave data and to visualize them for different psychological purposes. So in our project we will try to extract these alpha and beta brainwaves as muchaccurate as we can, and accordingly we will create some control mechanisms to use this resulting data.
Brain Waves and Age
|Age||Brain wave||Cycles/sec.||Usual state for adults||No. of repetitions required for new behaviour|
|14+||Beta||14 - 21||Normal awake||Thousands|
|7 - 14||Alpha||7 - 14||Light sleep, meditation||21 (approx.)|
|4 - 7||Theta||4 - 7||Sleep, 'fight or flight'||1 or 2|
|0 - 4||Delta||0.5 - 4||Deep sleep||-|
Brain waves and Health
Specific Brain Frequencies
Delta Brain Waves ( O.5 to 4Hz)
Theta Brain Waves ( 4 to 8 Hz)
Alpha brain waves ( 8 to 12Hz)
Beta brain waves ( 13 to 30Hz)http://www.brainwavesblog.com/